Global Warming Effects Around the World

Global Warming Glossary *

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Deforestation - Natural or human-induced process that converts forest land to non-forest. See afforestation and reforestation.

Demand-side management - Policies and programs for influencing the demand for goods and/ or services. In the energy sector, demand-side management aims at reducing the demand or electricity and energy sources which helps to reduce heat-trapping gas (greenhouse gas) emissions.

Dematerialization - The process by which economic activity is decoupled from matter-energy throughput, through processes such as eco-efficient production or industrial ecology, allowing environmental impact to fall per unit of economic activity.

Desertification - Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification defines land degradation as a reduction or loss in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain-fed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest, and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as (i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water; (ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and (iii) long-term loss of natural vegetation.

Detection and attribution - Climate varies continually on all time scales. Detection of climate change is the process of demonstrating that climate has changed in some defined statistical sense, without providing a reason for that change. Attribution of causes of climate change is the process of establishing the most likely causes for the detected change with some defined level of confidence.

Dengue fever - A viral infectious disease spread by mosquitoes, often called breakbone fever because it is characterized by severe pain in the joints and back. Subsequent infections of the virus may lead to dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which may be fatal.

Desert - A region of very low rainfall, where "very low" is widely accepted to be <100 millimeters (<~4 inches) per year.

Desertification - Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Further, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines land degradation as a reduction or loss in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain-fed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including those arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: (i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water; (ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical, and biological or economic properties of soil; and (iii) long-term loss of natural vegetation.

Detection and attribution - Detection of change in a system (natural or human) is the process of demonstrating that the system has changed in some defined statistical sense, without providing a reason for that change. Attribution of such an observed change in a system to human-induced climate change is usually a two-stage process. First, the observed change in the system must be demonstrated to be associated with an observed regional climate change with a specified degree of confidence. Second, a measurable portion of the observed regional climate change, or the associated observed change in the system, must be attributed to human-induced climate forcing with a similar degree of confidence. Confidence in such joint attribution statements must be lower than the confidence in either of the individual attribution steps alone due to the combination of two separate statistical assessments.

Development path - An evolution based on an array of technological, economic, social, institutional, cultural and biophysical characteristics that determine the interactions between human and natural systems, including production and consumption patterns in all countries, over time at a particular scale.   ► Alternative development paths refer to different possible trajectories of development, the continuation of current trends being just one of the many paths.

Diadromous - Fish that travel between salt water and freshwater.

Diatoms - Silt-sized algae that live in surface waters of lakes, rivers and oceans and form shells of opal. Their species distribution in ocean cores is often related to past sea surface temperatures.

Discount rate - The degree to which consumption now is preferred to consumption one year hence, with prices held constant, but average incomes rising in line with GDP per capita.

District heating - Hot water (steam in old systems) is distributed from central stations to buildings and industries in a densely occupied area (a district, a city or an industrialized area). The insulated two-pipe network functions like a water-based central heating system in a building. The central heat sources can be waste-heat recovery at industrial processes, waste-incineration plants, cogeneration power plants or stand-alone boilers burning fossil fuels or biomass.

Diurnal temperature range - The difference between the maximum and minimum temperature during a 24-hour period.

Downscaling - Downscaling is a method that derives local- to regional-scale (10 to 100 km) information from larger-scale models or data analyses. Two main methods are distinguished: dynamical downscaling and empirical/statistical downscaling. The dynamical method uses the output of regional climate models, global models with variable spatial resolution or high-resolution global models. The empirical/statistical methods develop statistical relationships that link the large-scale atmospheric variables with local/regional climate variables. In all cases, the quality of the downscaled product depends on the quality of the driving model.

Drought - In general terms, drought is a "prolonged absence or marked deficiency of precipitation," a "deficiency that results in water shortage for some activity or for some group," or a "period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged for the lack of precipitation to cause a serious hydrological imbalance." Drought has been defined in a number of ways.   ► Agricultural drought relates to moisture deficits in the topmost 1 meter or so of soil (the root zone) that affect crops,   ► meteorological drought is mainly a prolonged deficit of precipitation, and   ► hydrologic drought is related to below-normal stream flow, lake and groundwater levels. A   ► megadrought is a long-drawn out and pervasive drought, lasting much longer than normal, usually a decade or more.

References

Glossaries of the contributions of Working Groups I, II and III to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 2007.

Nakićenović, N., J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. de Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grübler, T.Y. Jung, T. Kram, E.L. La Rovere, L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher, L. Price, K. Raihi, A. Roehrl, H.-H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor and Z. Dadi, 2000: Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and New York, 599 pp.

* Definitions adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 2007 and the Dictionary of Geological Terms Third Edition. 1984. Bates and Jackson (Eds).

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